In ultra long haul high speed communications, optical link budget and dispersion are the two major obstacles engineers encounter with. Dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency (wavelength). It is sometimes called chromatic dispersion due to the wavelength dependency nature. This issue becomes prominent for higher data rate (shorter pulse width) as well as longer transmission distance.
It is an optical line protection service board which provides low-cost redundant solution for broadband transmission networks. The main feature of this card is it is easy to install and it provide backup solution.
Muxponder: In optical fiber communications, a muxponder is the element that sends and receives the optical signal from a fiber in much the same way as a transponder except that the muxponder has the additional functionality of multiplexing multiple sub-rate client interfaces onto the line interface.